1. Babling and intonation pattern
2. One word and telegraphic
- A child understand some words what other is saying
- Moreover, child also have perception in their mind related the word stimulus
3. Preschool years
- Children begin to interact with unfamiliar people and environment like adult
- Children do over generalization, they consider a number of stimulus in one perception like called name all kinds of flower (rose, sun) as flowers
4. School years
Teori Perkembangan Bahasa
- Child was born like plain paper, the environment has responsibility to write the paper. Child imitate and practice follow their environment. It is also reinforcement if the child make mistake.
- Children have LAD (language acquisition device) in their brain to process and produce language. Therefore they can develop their own language.
- Children brain has an universal grammar
- This theory fail because this theory can’t explain a child who can’t speak.
Critical period hypothesis
- Each human has time to learn language especially while they are child (critical period) it the best time to learn language. Because adult who miss the critical period to learn language can’t speak like person who live in forest who never learn to speak while child
Piaget and Vygotsky
- In this research compile how children acquire language in the world wide
- This theory tried to connect same sound to the real one ex. Sound of cat. Child sound of cat but don’t understand what kinds of cat. This process, children do a perception in their ways. Finally child will find that not all the sound of cat are same.
Langauge Disorder and Delay
Environment : Child who can communicate to direction need
Childhood bilingualism like immigrant, children speak at home and school with different language. But they still be able to speak it all
Speed of children and adult in learning
- Adult will not say target language who has dirty word meaning in first language, therefore adult will not speak clearly. If more practice will be better.
- Child will speak directly only speak without know the meaning (child has positive attitude) while acquire everything including language
In learning language related cognitive
- Adult will be better in language in the beginning because adult understand the grammar (logical). In the grammar adult will be better, but the pronunciation is difficult to imitate native speaker.
- Child will be better than adult finally than adult because child adapt the new language better and acquirer faster even can imitate native speaker.
Lightbown and Spada. 2006. Language learning in early childhood.