Penelitian terhadap anxiety sudah dilakukan sejak awal tahun 1970s, yaitu mengenai anxiety pada foreign language or L2 languge. Pada mid 1980s mulai banyak penelitian tentang anxiety dalam domain second language seperti (MacIntyre &Gardner, 1991a; Young, 1991, 1994; MacIntyre, 1999; Horwitz, 2001)
1. Approaching to the study of anxiety in second language learning
- The first approach is that the anxiety experienced in an L2 context is simply the transferof other forms of anxiety into the L2 domain
- A unique type of anxiety. This theoretical perspective is based on Gardner’s hypothesis that “a construct of anxiety which is not general but instead is specific to the language acquisition context is related to second language achievement” (1985, p.34)
2. A theoretical model of foreign language anxiety
Communication apprehension is a type of shyness or fear associated with communicating with people (McCroskey, 1970). In theL2 domain it manifests itself in anxiety about speaking the target language (oral communication anxiety), especially speaking it in public (“stage fright”), and in apprehension about not understanding or misinterpreting L2 messages (receiver anxiety) (Wheeless, 1975). Test anxiety is defined as “the tendency to view with alarm the consequences of inadequate performance in an evaluative situation” (Sarason, 1978, p.214). In the language classroom it refers to worry over frequent testing, which may become a source of frustration for learners, as their proficiency is assessed while it is being acquired. Finally, the third aspect of FLA, fear of negative evaluation is “apprehension about others’ evaluations, the avoidance of evaluative situations, and the expectation that others would evaluate oneself negatively” (Watson & Friend, 1969, p.449). In the FL learning setting it may refer to academic evaluation, as well as to personal evaluations of the learners on the basis of their performance and competence in the L2.
3. Testing and refining the theoretical FLA construct
Source: Tóth, Zsuzsa. (2008). A Foreign Language Anxiety Scale for Hungarian Learners of English. WoPaLP 2, 2008.